Ideology Bibliography Examples

Copying word-for-word from another source (example a) without putting the original words within quotation marks and adding a citation referring to the original source. Even if you are putting the ideas from that source into your own words (example b), you still must credit the source. Here is an illustration of how both these situations work in an excerpt from an imaginary student paper. The words plagiarized from the original author are highlighted. (The following examples use the American Psychological Association referencing style (APA), which is common in the social sciences):

"It is not a fragment society, but exhibits the ideological diversity of European societies, although it has a more liberal cast."

So we all know that you cannot take the ideas from another text, even when you are putting them completely into your own words, without citing the source. But there is a more insidious kind of plagiarism that can take place when you are paraphrasing someone else's work. If you change the order of words or ideas from the original source, and use some of your own words mixed in with the original words, you are still plagiarizing even when you cite the source. In this first example, even though the student has credited the source with a citation, which is good, s/he has not put the original text completely into her/his own words and has attempted to deceive the reader by making the text appear to be a paraphrase of the original by turning the order back-to-front. The words that appeared in the original text are highlighted.

"It is not a fragment society, but exhibits the ideological diversity of European societies, although it has a more liberal cast."

Probably in this case, one would choose either to paraphrase completely or to quote the original words.

Using statistics from someone else's work without crediting the source

Charts, tables, or statistics inside a text or in other forms are the intellectual property of those who created them. For this reason the original creator must be cited in your text. You can see that there is also a rhetorical advantage to citing the source, because the very fact that a published author has arrived at statistics which support the claims you are making in your paper strengthens your own argument.

 

(Plagiarism) If we simply inserted this table into our paper, either by scanning, photocopying, or by re-typing it ourselves, and we did not cite the source, it would be plagiarism, because readers are led to believe that the author of the paper is the person who compiled the statistics and made up the graph. 

For example:

 

. . . . The following graph shows the distribution of crime rates all across Canada in the year 2003.

 

 

These crime rates are compiled from lists of crimes ranging from violent crimes to disturbing the peace . . . .

 

(Correct) The correct procedure would be to scan, photocopy, or type the table ourselves, and to cite the source, as follows:

 

. . . . The following graph shows the distribution of crime rates all across Canada in the year 2003.

 

 

(Source: Canada. Statistics Canada, 2004)

 

These crime rates are compiled from lists of crimes ranging from violent crimes to disturbing the peace . . . 

 

In some disciplines, the identification of the source is prefaced by the word "Source:" followed by the publishing details in the same order as the bibliographical style used in the paper. Check in your own style guide to see if that is what will be expected in your own paper.) In addition, if you want to make any notation of changes or adaptations you might have made to the original text, you would also note that here.

Using images, photographs, maps or other illustrative devices without citing sources

The practice would be similar to how one would identify the source of a table or figure.

 

So, here again is our original photograph. Imagine that you wish to place it in your own text, and write your own description, in order to make the photograph apply to your own paper and illustrate a point you are arguing.

 

Fig.1. "Troop Front" Canadian Mounted Rifles with Second

Contingent South Africa (Source: Library and Archives

Canada. photo # PA-028895)

 

(Plagiarism) To insert the photograph into your text with your own explanatory text or the text taken from the original source beneath it but with no acknowledgment of the original source would be plagiarism. Even if you have taken a photograph yourself it is wise to cite yourself as the creator. This will make the source clear to any reader.

 

. . . Canada first sent her troops abroad in the South African, or Boer War, from 1899-1902.

 

 

It is interesting to note that . . . . as we can see in the picture above . . . .

 

(Correct) Just as with tables and charts, the source of the original photograph must be acknowledged, as in this example.

 

. . . Canada first sent her troops abroad in the South African, or Boer War, from 1899-1902.

 

Fig.1. "Troop Front" Canadian Mounted Rifles with Second
Contingent South Africa (Source: Library and Archives
Canada. photo # PA-028895)

 

It is interesting to note that . . . as we can see in Figure 1 . . .  

 

Buying or copying another person's paper or assignment or hiring an essay-writing service to write your paper

Although it must be obvious to everyone that hiring another person to write an essay for you is plagiarism, copying portions of another person's work is also bad. Copying a paper or portions of a paper from an essay bank of old papers or copying old lab reports would be an example of this kind of plagiarism.

 

Sharing code for a computer program with another student or taking code from the Web or another source without citing that source

If you are in any doubt as to the extent of collaboration permitted, consult your instructor.

 

(Plagiarism) When you are working on a group project that is to be graded individually, and you share the same code with each other, it is very clear that you have collaborated illegally. 

 

(Correct) When you are working on a group project that is to be graded individually, you should discuss the problem without reference to code. Do not share code with the others in your group; nor should you look at any part of another student's solution, whether it be on paper or the computer screen.

Downloading material from the Internet without proper citation

The Internet may seem free and anarchic, but the same rules of appropriate citation apply to material found on the Web as for any printed source.

 

(Plagiarism) The following passage is included in a student text without citing the source:. . . . A little searching quickly reveals that Sahr's site is not the only repository for plagiarizable papers. There are several large sites which sell papers, and even more which maintain small collections available for free. There are even some which promise custom-written papers. 
 

(Correct) . . . .As Leland says, "A little searching quickly reveals that Sahr's site is not the only repository for plagiarizable papers. There are several large sites which sell papers, and even more which maintain small collections available for free. There are even some which promise custom-written papers " (2002, ¶ 3).

 

Note that many electronic sources don't have page numbers, but might have paragraph numbers. If there is a paragraph number, use either the ¶ symbol or the abbreviation "para." If neither page nor paragraph is there, use section headings if possible.

Padding a Bibliography or Reference List, to suggest that you have done research when you haven't

This type of academic misconduct often occurs when students leave their writing assignments to the last moment, or when they want to appear to have done more work than they really have, perhaps because their professor has required that they have a certain number of books and articles in their reference list. But if you think of plagiarism as defined as the intent to deceive someone about the work you have done, then you can understand that saying you have read something you haven't read also falls into this category.

 

Making up statistics or other important facts, and citing a false source

This kind of invention, pretending that the information or source you are including in your paper is real, is serious because it strikes at the heart of the climate of trust that must exist in academia. If people are not honest about reporting their results, their research is invalid, and cannot be a basis for further work.

 

Continue to the Plagiarism Quiz

Language ideology is a relatively recent field of study. It emerged from the Ethnography of Speaking school of the 1960s and 1970s, which had emphasized cultural conceptions of language as these were manifest in culturally distinctive patterns of speaking. By the 1980s, several scholars in this school had turned toward a focus on language’s relation to power and political economy (see Friedrich 1989, Gal 1989, Irvine 1989). At the same time, there was a growing interest in seeing how politics and social action might be embedded in specifics of language structure. This second concern was being developed especially by Silverstein, who took linguistic form as his starting point and looked toward the social activity and cultural ideas embedded in it; scholars in the ethnography of speaking school had tended to work in the other direction, starting from social formations. Silverstein 1979 offered an influential formulation of “linguistic ideologies” as “any sets of beliefs about language articulated by the users as a rationalization or justification of perceived language structure and use.” Taken up and elaborated by other linguistic anthropologists in the 1980s and 1990s, “language ideology” was given a more sociocultural emphasis by Irvine 1989, which defined it as “the cultural system of ideas about social and linguistic relationships, together with their loading of moral and political interests.” Along similar lines, Gal 1989 noted that language ideologies are not only explicit, but also include more tacit assumptions about the nature of language and its use. Further developing the concept to make it more consistent with Marxist approaches to “ideology,” Gal envisioned language ideologies as differentiated between groups (of speakers) with different positions in a political economy. Meanwhile, from linguistics, an influential edited collection, Joseph and Taylor 1990, took up the question of what ideological bases underlay the “science of language” itself. Woolard and Schieffelin 1994 shows how large this field had already grown by the mid-1990s. Its history was more extensively reviewed by Woolard 1998. See also the review from a few years later, Kroskrity 2004. Keane 2007 proposes “semiotic ideology” as a related, but broader, concept.

  • Friedrich, Paul. 1989. Language, ideology, and political economy. American Anthropologist 91:295–312.

    DOI: 10.1525/aa.1989.91.2.02a00010E-mail Citation »

    Distinguishes several valuable senses of “ideology,” such as a “notional” sense and a more “pragmatic” sense. Even if ideology is seen as “the more intellectual constituent of culture,” it is useful in considering those aspects of culture having to do with political economy, such as the division of labor.

  • Gal, Susan. 1989. Language and political economy. Annual Review of Anthropology 18:345–367.

    DOI: 10.1146/annurev.an.18.100189.002021E-mail Citation »

    A review article that connects anthropological approaches to its topic with Marxist work on ideology, especially in terms of the positioning of social groups within a social system.

  • Irvine, Judith T. 1989. When talk isn’t cheap: Language and political economy. American Ethnologist 16:248–267.

    DOI: 10.1525/ae.1989.16.2.02a00040E-mail Citation »

    This paper outlines a range of ways in which language structures and uses are involved with a political economy. It ends with comments about language ideology, defined in terms that emphasize sociocultural aspects.

  • Joseph, John, and Talbot J. Taylor, eds. 1990. Ideologies of language. New York: Routledge.

    E-mail Citation »

    Studies in this collection explore the ideologies of scholars working in the “science of language,” from the 17th century to the present, in various countries and intellectual traditions.

  • Keane, E. Webb. 2007. Christian moderns: Freedom and fetish in the mission encounter. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.

    E-mail Citation »

    Keane argues for situating language ideology within a “semiotic ideology” that would include other semiotic modalities, as well as conceptions of materiality. A century of Dutch Calvinist missionary efforts in Indonesia offers the case materials for the discussion.

  • Kroskrity, Paul. 2004. Language ideology. In Companion to linguistic anthropology. Edited by Alessandro Duranti, 496–517. Oxford: Blackwell.

    E-mail Citation »

    This is a review article that identifies major strands of research on language ideology to date. The article overlaps with Kroskrity’s introduction to the collection he edited in 2000 (see Kroskrity 2000, cited under Foundational Collections).

  • Silverstein, Michael. 1979. Language structure and linguistic ideology. In The elements: A parasession on linguistic units and levels. Edited by Paul Clyne, William F. Hanks, and Carol L. Hofbauer. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

    E-mail Citation »

    The first formulation of “linguistic ideology.” The paper then develops Silverstein’s semiotic reading of Whorf, along with some extended examples.

  • Woolard, Kathryn. 1998. Language ideology as a field of inquiry. In Language ideologies: Practice and theory. Edited by Bambi Schieffelin, Kathryn Woolard, and Paul Kroskrity, 3–49. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

    E-mail Citation »

    A crucial introduction to the field. Surveys the history of research to date, and identifies important differences in conceptions of “ideology” in social theory insofar as these show up as different approaches in language ideology research.

  • Woolard, Kathryn, and Bambi Schieffelin. 1994. Language ideology. Annual Review of Anthropology 23:55–82.

    DOI: 10.1146/annurev.an.23.100194.000415E-mail Citation »

    An early review of research in this field, it served to put this then-new field on the intellectual map. Later largely superseded by Woolard 1998.

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